Guidelines for Assessment, Monitoring and Management
of Animal Disease in Wetlands

Ramsar Technical Report No. 7

Ramsar Wetland Disease ManualThis Manual is aimed primarily at wetland managers, as well as wetland policy makers, recognising the key role that wetland managers play in prevention of disease problems.

It provides practical guidance to managing animal diseases for healthy wetlands, including:

  • an overview including how best to use the Manual
  • an introduction to the problems of diseases in wetlands
  • principles of disease management
  • specific and generic practices for preventing and controlling diseases in wetlands
  • user-friendly factsheets of a wide range of priority animal diseases of wetlands
    (which will be added to over time)
  • case studies illustrating wetland disease management in action
  • further contacts and resources
  • a glossary
  • the key messages from the Manual
  • and more


Download the whole Manual here
(opens a PDF in a new window - please be patient as it is a large file)


To maximise the utility of the Manual we are looking to improve its accessibility and translate it into at least the other two official Ramsar languages (French and Spanish). If you can help please get in touch: ruth.cromie@wwt.org.uk



Separate sections of the Manual

Please note that we recommend reading the 'How to use the Manual section' in the Overview first.


1. Introduction

2. Principles of disease management

3. General management practices

4. Disease factsheets – all

African animal trypanosomiasis

Amphibian chytridiomycosis


Avian botulism

Avian cholera

Avian influenza

Avian tuberculosis

Bovine tuberculosis



Coral diseases

Crayfish plague

Duck virus enteritis

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)

Escherichia coli poisoning

Harmful algal blooms

Lead poisoning


Oyster diseases

Peste des petits ruminants

Ranavirus infection

Rift Valley fever



Tick-borne diseases (TBDs)

Trematode infections of fish

West Nile virus disease

Where to go for further assistance and advice

Appendices – all

Appendix 1 - Affiliations of authors and editors

Appendix 2 - Key messages for Wetland Managers and Policy Makers

Appendix 3 - Glossary

Appendix 4 - OIE Member Countries

Appendix 5 - OIE listed diseases

Appendix 6 - Outputs from disease prioritisation exercise

Appendix 7 - Summary of impacts of diseases on wildlife

Appendix 8 - Technical editors of disease fact sheets